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In  the  following  pages  no  explanation  of  the  Passover  as 
it  was  observed  in  the  Old  Testament  times  is  aimed  at. 
I  hope  to  publish  later  a  fuller  account  of  the  origin, 
growth,  and  significance  of  the  Passover,  discussing  from 
a  Jewish  point  of  view  several  questions  which  are  either 
omitted  or  only  slightly  touched  in  this  pamphlet.  Here 
I  have  confined  myself  to  a  non-technical  description  of 
the  Passover  as  it  was  kept  in  the  days  of  ouv  Lord.  I  have 
dwelt  especially  on  those  manners  and  customs  of  the 
Jews  which  throw  light  on  the  Institution  of  the  Lord's 
Supper  or  elucidate  some  obscure  passages  of  the  New 

I  must  acknowledge  here  my  indebtedness  to  Dr. 
Edersheim's  "  Life  and  Times  of  Jesus  the  Messiah," 
(Longman)  and"  Temple  and  its  Ministry"  (R.T.S.). 

I  have  also  made  use  of  Friedlander's  Jewish 
Religion;  the  Jewish  Encyclopaedia;  Hastings'  Diction 
ary  of  the  Bible  ;  Keil's  Biblical  Archaeology  ;  Kurtz's 
History  of  the  Old  Covenant ;  Rawlinson's  Exodus ; 
various  volumes  of  the  International  Critical  Com 
mentary  and  other  well-known  commentaries. 

The  illustrations  on  pp.  4  and  28  are  taken  from 
Lane's  Modern  Egyptian. 

K.  E.  K. 

September  1907. 


Egyptian  and  the  Permanent  Passover. 

The  Passover  was  intended  to  keep  alive  a  grateful 
remembrance  of  the  deliverance  from  Egypt.  We  have 
in  the  twelfth  chapter  of  Exodus  an  account  of  the 
origin  and  the  mode  of  observing  the  feast.  The 
Jews  distinguish  between  the  Egyptian  and  the  Per 
manent  Passover. 

The  Egyptian  or  the  Primary   Passover. — The 

head  of  the  household  had  to  choose  on  the  tenth  day 
of  the  month  a  male  lamb  (or  kid)  one  year  old,  and 
without  blemish,  and  keep  it  separate  from  the  flock 
until  the  fourteenth  day  at  even.  Then  he  had  to  kill  it, 
and  dip  a  bunch  of  hyssop  in  its  blood  and  stain  the 
lintel  and  the  two  side  posts  of  his  doorway  (Ex.  xii.,  22} 
so  that  when  the  Lord  was  passing  through  the  land  to 
smite  all  the  first-born,  He  might  pass  over  (i.e.  "  spare  '') 
the  houses  of  the  Israelites,  and  not  allow  the  angel  of 
death  to  enter  in  (v.  13).  The  lamb  was  then  .  to  be 
roasted  without  breaking  a  bone,  and  to  be  eaten  with 
bitter  herbs  and  unleavened  bread  (v.  8)  the  same  night 

and  at  one  sitting.  Any  fragment  unconsumed  was  to 
be  burnt  with  fire  (v.  10).  "  And  thus  shall  ye  eat  it ; 
with  your  loins  girded,  your  shoes  on  your  feet,  and  your 
staff  in  your  hand  :  and  ye  shall  eat  it  in  haste ;  it  is  the 
Lord's  passover.  For  I  will  go  through  the  land  of 
Egypt  in  that  night,  and  will  smite  all  the  first-born  in 
the  land  of  Egypt,  both  man  and  beast ;  and  against  all 
the  gods  of  Egypt  I  will  execute  judgements:  I  am  the 
Lord  "  (vers.  11-12).  This  primary  passover  only  lasted 
one  night.  Additional  rules,  however,  were  given  for  a 
permanent  annual  observance. 

The  Permanent  Passover  (Ex.  xii.,  14-20). — The 
festival  was  extended  to  seven  days  (v.  15),  of  which  the 
first  and  the  last  were  "  a  holy  convocation,"  i.e.,  a 
solemn  assembly  for  religious  worship.  Later  on 
regulations  were  made  also  about  pilgrimages  to  a 
central  sanctuary,  the  offering  of  other  sacrifices,  the 
admission  of  the  non- Israelites  to  the  festival,  and  the 
instruction. of  the  children  (Ex.  xxiii.,  14;  D.eut.  xvi.,  2, 
5,  6  ;  Ex.  xii.,  26).  We  must  bear  in  mind  that  the 
departure  of  the  Israelites  took  place  during  the  month 
Abib  "  ("  green  ears  of  corn  "),  or  spring  (Ex.  xiii.,  4). 
As  among  both  pastoral  and  agricultural  people,  spring 
is  the  season  of  special  sacrifices  and  festivities,  these 
elements,  after  having  been  stripped  of  any  heathenish 
associations  they  might  have  had,  were  adopted  and 
incorporated  into  the  feast  of  unleavened  bread,  and 

purer  motives  were  thus  assigned  to  them.  The  AGRI 
CULTURAL  element  we  find  in  Lev.  xxiii.,  10-11,  where  it 
is  enjoined  that  "  On  the  morrow  after  the  Sabbathf  ye 
shall  bring  the  sheaf  of  the  first  fruits  of  your  harvest  unto 
the  priest,  and  he  shall  wave  the  sheaf  before  the  Lord." 
This  wave  offering  was  made  at  the  beginning  of  barky 
harvest  (2  Sam.  xxi.,  9),  as  the  wheat  becomes  ripe 
about  a  fortnight  later.  So  the  festival  of  the  beginning 
of  harvest  is  blended  with  the  feast  of  unleavened  bread 
(comp.  Deut.  xvi.,  9  and  12).  The  PASTORAL  element  also 
is  recognised  in  the  command,  "  Sanctify  unto  me  all  the 
first  born,  whatsoever  openeth  the  womb  among  the 
children  of  Israel,  both  of  men  and  of  beast  :  it  is  mine." 
(Ex.  xiii.,  2).  The  fresh  motive  assigned  to  this  sacrifice 
of  the  firstlings  of  the  herd  was  the  fact  that  when  "  the 
Lord  slew  all  the  first  born  in  the  land  of  Egypt,  both 
the  first  born  of  man  and  the  first  born  of  beast,"  He 
spared  the  Israelites  (Ex.  xiii.,  14-16). 

i  i.e.,  the  day  following  the  i5th  of  Xisan  which  was  kept  with  cessation  from 
all  work  as  on  a  sabbath.  S)  the  day  of  atonement  is  called  "Sabbath" 
(Lev.  xxiii,  32)  independently  of  the  day  of  the  week  in  which  it  may  fall. 

*  Strictly  speaking  the  "  Passover  "  is  distinct  from  the  feast  of"  unleavened 
bread,"  the  former  designating  the  i4th  of  Abib,  whereas  the  latter  begins  at 
sunset  on  the  i4th,  which  according  to  the  Jewish  mode  of  reckoning  is  the 
beginning  of  the  i5th.  It  extends  over  seven  days  (comp.  Lev.  xxiii.,  5,  0 
Num.  xxviii.,  16,  17);  The  two  feasts,  however,  following  each  other  so  closely 
are  frequently  treated  as  one  (Dent,  xvi,  i.  3). 


The  Passover  in  the  Time  of  Christ. — Before 
the  time  of  our  Lord  certain  significant  features  bad  been 
introduced  into  the  observance  of  the  feast,  and  some 
details  of  the  "  Egyptian  "  Passover  were  omitted.  As 
the  institution  of  the  Lord's  Supper  is  so  intimately 
connected  with  the  contemporary  mode  of  the  Passover 
observance,  we  proceed  here  to  describe  somewhat  more 
fully  how  the  Jews  kept  it  in  the  days  of  our  Lord. 

Preparations. — Had  we  been  living  in  Jerusalem 
in  those  days,  we  should  have  noticed  that  the  Passover 
was  monopolizing  the  attention  of  all  classes  of  society 
about  four  weeks  before  its  arrival.  It  would  be  dis 
cussed  in  the  academies,  descanted  upon  in  the  syna 
gogues,  and  taught  the  children  in  the  schools.  House 
wives  would  be  busily  occupied  in  something  approach 
ing  our  sprfng-cleaning,  and  in  "  washings  (literally 
"  baptizings  "*)  of  cups,  and  pots,  and  brasen  vessels," 
(Mk.  vii.,  4),  in  carefully  cleaning  and  storing  cereals, 
and  in  making  garments  for  themselves  and  their  house- 

*  Separate  sets  of  kitchen  and  other  household  utensils  were  used  generally 
during  the  Passover.  If  an  ordinary  set  was  to  be  used,  it  would  be  first  well 
scrubbed  and  then  literally  immersed  or  "baptized"  in  boiling  water.  New 
vessels  bought  from  Gentiles  would  pass  through  the  same  process,  called 

hold  f  in  honour  of  the  coming  feast.  The  Sanhedrin  would 
send  working  men  to  examine  and  repair  the  bridges  and 
to  keep  the  roads  in  good  condition  for  the  convenience 
of  the  pilgrims. 

Whitened  Sepulchres.— Burials  in  Palestine 
usually  took  place  outside  the  towns,  either  in  natural 
caves  or  in  rock  hewn  tombs.  If,  however,  a  person  met 
with  sudden  death  in  a  field,  he  would  be  buried  on  the 
very  spot  where  he  was  found.  About  a  month  prior  to 
the  Passover,  all  such  graves  were  whitened,  so  that  their 
dazzling  brightness  might  make  them  conspicuous,  and 
so  warn  pilgrims  from  approaching  them  and  unwittingly 
contracting  ceremonial  defilement.  It  was  to  this 
practice  that  our  Lord  alluded  when,  a  few  days  before 
the  Passover,  He  compared  some  of  the  Pharisees  of 
His  day  to  "whitened  sepulchres"  (Matt,  xxiii,  27.) 
He  hereby  meant  that  their  external  sanctity,  divorced 
from  real  inward  holiness  of  life,  concealed  much  rotten 
ness  within  (comp.  Acts  xxiii.,  3),  and  was  to  be  a  sign 
post  indicating  hidden  corruption.  We  must  not,  however, 
assume  that  the  New  Testament  denounced  all  the 
Pharisees  as  such  (see  Matt,  xxiii.,  2-3;  John  iii.,  1-2; 
Acts  v.,  34,  38,  39;  xxiii.,  6;  Phil,  iii.,  6).  Some  of 
them  became  believers  (Acts  xv.,  5). 

\  In  those  days  there  were  no  professional  dressmakers.     Ladies  of  all  rank 
did    the    tailoring    for   their   household   (see  i   Sam.  ii.,  19      Prov.  xxxi.,  22-24, 
Acts  ix.,  39), 


In  Jerusalem. 

Every  male*  Jew  had  to  "  appear  before  the  Lord  " 
in  Jerusalem  at  the  three  great  Feasts  of  Passover, 
Pentecost,  and  Tabernacles  (Deut.  xvi.,  16).  Each 
person  would  generally  so  arrange  as  to  reach  the  Holy 
City  a  few  days  before  the  Feast  in  order  that  he  might 
purify  himself  from  any  case  of  ceremonial  defilement 
(John  xi.,  55). 

Number  of  Visitors.— Josephus,  the  Jewish 
historian,  who  was  a  contemporary  of  the  Apostles,  tells 
us  that  in  the  year  66  A.D.  about  2^  million  Jews  were 
present  at  the  Feast.  Some  scholars  think  that 
Josephus  is  exaggerating.  Jerusalem,  they  allege,  could 
not  have  accommodated  such  a  vast  number  of  people. 
Josephus'  statement  is  not  really  incredible. 

We  must  bear  in  mind  that  the  mode  of  life  in  the 
East  vastly  differs  from  that  in  the  West.  Every  room 
in  an  Eastern  house  can  be  turned  into  a  bedroom  at 
night,  and  half  a  dozen  men  can  be  accommodated  in 
one  room  (comp.  Luke  xi.,  7).  I  am  afraid,  my  dear 
reader,  you  are  shocked  at  such  an  idea,  and  you  will  ask 
"  Where  do  they  get  the  necessary  bedsteads  ?  "  Well,  to  be 
frank,  I  must  admit  that  the  ordinary  people  have  no 

*  There  were  two  rival  Schools  in  the  days  of  our  Lord,  the 
School  of  Hillel  and  the  School  of  Sbammai.  The  former  recom 
mended  women  also  to  be  present  at  the  Passover.  This  accounts 
for  the  presence  of  the  Virgin  at  the  Feast  (Luke  ii.,  41). 


bedsteads/"  nor  do  they  need  them.  When  you  read  the 
story  of  the  sick  man  to  whom  our  Lord  said  "  Take  up 
thy  bed  and  walk  "  (John  v.,  8),  you  must  not  imagine 
that  the  man  had  to  take  up  a  heavy  iron  bedstead,  put 
it  on  his  back  and  walk ;  though  you  may  have  heard 
some  good  people  assert  that  such  was  the  case,  and 
that  the  carrying  of  the  heavy  burden  was  a  proof  of  the 
infirm  man's  complete  recovery.  Nothing  of  the  kind. 
The  sick  man  had  only  a  "  pallet  "  or  a  pliable  mattress 
(called  "  Krabattos  "  in  Greek)  which  could  be  folded  or 
rolled  up  and  carried  either  on  the  shoulder  or  on  the 
arm.  The  bed  in  an  ordinary  house  consists  of  a 
mattress  which  can  be  folded,  a  quilt  and  a  bolster. 
These  are  neatly  folded  up  in  the  morning,  put  in  a 
large  covering  of  some  fancy]material,and  deposited  in  the 
closet  or  a  recess  in  the  wall.  Should  the  covering  be 
embroidered  or  otherwise  ornamented,  then  the  folded 
bed  is  placed  close  to  the  wall  and  serves  as  a  divan  or 
couch  for  resting  on  during  the  day.  So,  what  is  a  bed 
at  night,  is  a  couch  in  the  day.  | 

*  Only  Og,  King  of  Bashan,  is  mentioned  as  having  possessed 
"  a  bedstead  of  iron  "  (Deut.  iii.,  n).  Very  wealthy  people,  how 
ever,  had  "  beds  of  ivory  "  (Amos  vi.,  4),  and  couches  which  were 
most  luxuriously  embroidered  and  perfumed  (Prov.  vii.,  16-17). 

f  When  Hainan  was  pleading  before  Queen  Esther  for  his  life, 
we  read  in  the  Authorized  Version  that^  Ahasuerus  found  him 
"  fallen  upon  the  bed  where  Esther  was."  Now  we  may  be  quite  sure 
that  Haman  could  not  have  dared  to  commit  such  an  outrageous 
folly.  In  fact,  he  never  did  so.  The  "bed"  on  which  he  was 
grovelling  was  only  a  "  couch  "  and  so  it  is  rendered  in  the  Revised 


The  poor  and  the  ordinary  travellers  cannot  boast 
of  owning  even  a  pallet,  such  as  the  sick  man  had. 
When  they  want  to  sleep,  they  do  so  in  their  day  clothes 
and  cover  themselves  with  their  cloak  or  outer  garment, 
which  in  Hebrew  is  called  "  Simlah,"  and  in  Arabic 
"Abaa."  Now,  we  can  appreciate  the  humanitarian 
law  laid  down  in  Exodus  xxii.  26-27:  "Ifthou  at  all 
take  thy  neighbour's  garment  to  pledge,  thou  shalt 
restore  it  unto  him  by  that  the  sun  goeth  down  :  for 
that  is  his  only  covering,  it  is  his  garment  for  his  skin : 
wherein  shall  he  sleep  ?  " 

After  the  foregoing  remarks,  you  will  readily  admit 
that  the  question  of  bedsteads  will  not  stand  in  the  way 
of  a  kind  host  accommodating  a  large  number  of  pilgrims 
in  his  house;  for  each  pilgrim  will  be  sure  to  bring  with 
him  his  "abaa,"  which  is  a  good  substitute  for  both 
bed  and  bedstead.  We  must  not  forget  that  the  court 
yards  as  well  as  the  flat  roofs  of  Eastern  houses  will 
also  be  available  for  sleeping  purposes.  Add  to  all  this 
the  fact  thaf  a  large  number  of  visitors  would  be  encamp 
ing  outside  Jerusalem,  especially  in  Bethphage  and 
Bethany — two  villages  at  the  Mount  of  Olives 
(Mk.  xi.,  i),  and  ecclesiastically  regarded  as  part  of 
Jerusalem.  As  we  read  in  the  Talmud  (Pes.  liii}  that 
the  inhabitants  of  these  two  villages  were  especially 
famous  for  their  hospitality  to  the  Passover  pilgrims, 
our  thoughts  go  back  to  that  holy  family — Martha, 


Mary,  and  Lazarus — who  were  residents  in  Bethany 
and  were  several  times  visited  by  our  Lord 
(Luke  x.,  38-42;  John  xi.,  1-53).  Was  it  their 
hospitality  to  the  pilgrims  which  brought  them  to  the 
notice  of  our  Lord?  At  any  rate,  the  Talmud 
incidentally  confirms  the  Gospel  narrative,  in  that  it 
bears  witness  to  the  generosity  of  the  inhabitants  of 
Bethany,  and  thus  is  in  full  accord  with  the  impression 
that  we  independently  form  by  a  careful  study  of  the 
New  Testament." 

*  See  Luke  x.,  38-41.  Martha  welcomes  our  Lord  (verse  38)  ; 
she  is  distracted  lest,  without  Mary's  assistance,  any  minutia  of 
hospitality  should  be  left  unperformed,  she  being  the  elder  sister, 
the  responsibility  devolves  on  her  (v.  40)  ;  our  Lord  acknowledges 
Martha's  loving  anxiety  and  sets  her  at  ease  (v.  41).  Comp. 
John  xii.,  2  ("  Martha  served  ").  In  John  xii.,  3,  we  read  that  Mary 
"  took  a  pound  of  ointment  of  spikenard,  very  precious,  and  anointed 
the  feet  of  Jesus," 


A  Week  before  the  Passover. 

The  Lamb. — The  Jews  would  arrive  at  Jerusalem 
about  a  week  before  the  Feast.  They  would  choose  a 
lamb  on  the  fourteenth  of  the  month  Nisan,  and  take  it  to 
the  officers  of  the  Temple  to  be  examined.  If  declared 
to  be  without  blemish,  it  would  be  sacrificed  on  the 
fourteenth  day  of  the  month,  namely,  the  day  with  the 
evening  of  which  the  first  day  of  Passover  begins.  As 
Christians,  we  cannot  but  see  in  this  a  foreshadowing  of 
the  sacrifice  of  Christ.  A  week  before  the  Passover  our 
Lord  went  up  to  Jerusalem.  He  was  brought  for 
examination  before  the  tribunals  of  Pontius  Pilate  and 
Herod,  who  were  compelled  to  declare  Him  without 
any  blemish.  "  Ye  brought  unto  me  this  man  as  one 
that  perverteth  the  people,"  said  Pilate,  "  and  behold,  I, 
having  examined  Him  before  you,  found  no  fault  in  this 
Man  touching  those  things  whereof  ye  accuse  Him  :  no, 
nor  yet  Herod:  for  he  sent  Him  back  unto  us;  and  behold, 
nothing  worthy  of  death  hath  been  done  by  Him  "  (Lk.  xxiii., 
14,  15).  So,  after  this  public  declaration  by  the  chief 
officers  of  the  nation  to  His  innocence,  the  Lamb  of 
God  was  delivered  up  to  be  crucified,  and  He  shed  His 
atoning  blood  on  the  very  day  that  the  Passover  lamb 
was  to  be  offered.  Can  we  not  see  now  the  reason  why 


St.     Paul     designates     Christ     as      "  our     Passover  " 
(i  Cor.  v.,  7)  ? 

Here  I  may  make  a  slight  digression  in  order  to 
describe  how  time  is  reckoned  in  the  East. 

In  Kngland  we  reckon  from  midnight  to  midnight, 
and  we  consider  the  night  as  part  of  the  preceding  day. 
Not  so  in  the  East.  Paradoxical  though  it  may  sound, 
it  is  a  fact  that  the  eastern  day  begins  in  the  evening 
(Lev.  xxiii.,  32),  and  the  night  is  part  of  the  day  following. 
For  instance,  if  to-day  is  Wednesday,  to-night  will  be 
called  not  Wednesday  night,  but  Thursday  night,  for  it 
forms  part  of  the  morrow.  \Ye  notice  this  on  the  very 
first  page  of  our  Bible,  for  in  Genesis  i.,  5,  we  read, 
"  And  there  was  evening  and  there  was  morning,  one 
day."  No\v,  does  the  knowledge  of  this  fact  at  all  help 
us  to  understand  in  what  way  Christ's  stay  in  the  grave 
can  be  regarded  as  "  three  days  and  three  nights " 
(Mt.  xii.,  40)  ?  Yes,  it  does.  The  Lord  was  crucified 
on  Friday,  and  He  rose  on  Sunday  morning.  The  three 
days  are  reckoned  thus  : — 

ist  day  :  From  the  hour  of  the  crucifixion  till  sunset  on 
Friday,  being  part  of  a  day  is  regarded  as  one 
day,  just  as  part  of  a  year  in  the  books  of  the 
Kings  is  regarded  as  one  year. 

2nd  day  :   From  sunset  on  Friday  to  sunset  on  Saturday. 

3rd  day  :  From  sunset  on  Saturday  till  Sunday  morning 
(part  of  a  day  and  regarded  as  one  day). 

What  about  the  "  three  nights  "?  The  Lord  was  in  the 
prave  two  whole  nights.  That  St.  Matthew  knew  that  the 
Lord  was  crucified  on  Friday  ("the  Preparation  ")  and  rose 
on  Sunday  morning,  is  evident  from  xxviL  62,andxxviii.  i, 
and  from  other  passages.  Consequently,  he  must  have, 
been  aware  that  there  were  only  two  nights  in  the  whole 
period  of  the  Lord's  sojourn  in  the  grave.  Why  then 
does  he  retain  the  wording  "three  days  and  three  nights" 
which  to  the  Western  mind  appears  inexact  ?  For  the 
good  reason,  we  reply,  that  he  did  not  choose  his  phrase 
ology  for  the  over-punctilious  Western  critics,  but  for 
the  Eastern  Jews  who  would  appreciate  a  pictorial 
language,  and  to  whom  the  apostle's  wording  would 
suggest  no  difficulty  at  all.  By  the  expression  "  three 
days  and  three  nights,"  they  would  understand  "  three 
days  or  parts  of  three  days,  with  the  intervening  nights  " 
as  distinct  from  three  days  without  the  nights.  Should 
anyone  feel  any  hesitancy  in  accepting  this  explanation, 
we  would  direct  him  to  an  early  attempt  at  solution 
made  in  the  Syviac  Didascalid*  (edition  Lagarde,  page  88) 
which  takes  the  three  hours  of  darkness  (Matt,  xxvh'45)  on 
the  Crucifixion  day  as  equivalent  to  an  additional  night. f 

The  Purging  of  Leaven. — On  the  night  preceding 
the  Passover  night,  an  especial  ceremony  called  "bedigath 
chametz  "  (searching  for  leaven)  and  based  on  Zephaniah 
i.  12,  would  take  place  in  every  Jewish  house.  The  head 

*  See  the  International  Crit.  Commentary  on  St.  Matthew    by 
W.  C.  Allen,  page  139  (note). 

t  See  note  on  page  19. 


of  the  family,  taking  a  light  in  one  hand  and  a  pair  of 
tongs  in  another,  would  search  all  the  nooks  and  corners 
of  the  house  and  gather  in  one  place  every  particle  of 
leaven  and  put  them  in  a  safe  place.  On  the  morrow 
(Nisan  i4th),  some  time  in  the  forenoon,  and  so  before 
the  sacrifice  of  the  Paschal  lamb,  he  would  reverently 
burn  or  purge  them  from  his  house,  making  the  following 
declaration  : — 

"All  leaven  which  perchance  remains  in  my  domain,  and 
which  has  escaped  my  observation  shall  be  destroyed  and 
be  like  unto  the  dust  of  the  earth, "  This  ordinance  is  called 
"  Bi-oor  chametz"  i.e.,  "  the  purging  of  leaven,"  and  is 
alluded  to  by  St.  Paul  in  his  first  Epistle  to  the  Corinth 
ians,  which  he  wrote  a  short  time  before  the  Passover 
(xvi.,  8).  He  takes  an  illustration  from  this  Jewish 
ceremony  and  says  "  Purge  out  the  old  leaven,  that  ye  may  be  a 
new  lump,  even  as  ye  are  unleavened.  For  our  Passover 
also  hath  been  sacrificed,  even  Christ"  (\.,  7-8).  What  he 
means  is  this  :  you  know  that  by  the  time  that  the  Jews 
had  offered  their  Paschal  lamb,  no  leaven  would  be  found 
in  their  houses.  Now,  for  us  Christians,  Christ  is  the 
Paschal  lamb,  and  He  hath  been  sacrificed,  so  there  should 
be  no  "leaven"  found  amongst  us.  By  "leaven"  he 
means  "  the  leaven  of  malice  and  wickedness,"  (v.  8). 

What  hour  was  the  Passover  killed  ? — According 
to  the  original  injunction,  the  Passover  was  to  be  killed 
"  at  even,"  literally,  "  between  the  two  evenings," 


(Ex.  xii.,  6).  This  expression  has  been  variously 
interpreted.  The  Pharisees  (see  Josephus,  Bell, 
Jud.  vi.,  9,  3,)  supposed  that  the  first  evening  commenced 
when  the  sun  began  to  decline,  i.e.,  about  3  p.m.  The 
Samaritans,  on  the  other  hand,  regarded  it  as  the  period 
between  the  disappearance  of  the  sun  below  the  horizon 
and  the  time  when  it  is  quite  dark,  i.e.,  from  six  o'clock 
till  about  half-past  seven  (Kurtz).  Deut.  xvi.,  6, 
"  Thou  shalt  sacrifice  at  even,  at  the  going  down  of  the  sun" 
is  in  favour  of  the  latter  interpretation.  See  Ex.  xvi., 
12,  13,  where  "  between  the  two  evenings,"  and  "  in  the 
evening "  are  used  synonymously.  In  the  days  of  our 
Lord,  however,  the  number  of  Paschal  lambs  rose  to 
over  250,000.  Although  all  the  twenty-four  "  courses  " 
of  priests  were  on  duty,  yet  it  would  have  been  utterly 
impossible  to  complete  the  offering  of  this  immense 
number  of  sacrifices  'during  about  ij  hours.  So,  we 
must  assume  that  the  killing  of  the  lambs  commenced 
earlier  in  the  day,  that  is  about  2-30  p.m.  This  was  the 
accepted  view  in  the  time  of  our  Lord. 

If  the  i/j-th  of  Nisan  fell  on  a  Friday,  the  killing 
would  take  place  about  two  hours  earlier. 

The  Fast  of  the  First  Born.— The  first  born  in 
the  family  would  fast  on  the  whole  or  part  of  the 
Preparation  Day,  in  thankful  remembrance  that  when 
the  Lord  smote  the  first  born  in  Egypt  all  the  first  born 
in  Israel  were  spared.  Some  also  abstain  from  a  full 


meal  "  from  about  the  time  of  *mincha  till  after  dark,"  in 
order  that  they  may  approach  the  festive  meal  in  the 
evening  with  full  appetite  (Pesachim  x.,  i).  The  motive 
for  this  abstention  was  not  religious,  but  epecurian. 

*  "  Mincha  "  is  the  evening  prayer  which  is  read  before   the  sun 

NOTE  TO  PAGE  16. 

Some  writers  think  that  the  Crucifixion  took  place  on  a 
Thursday.  The  "  three  days  and  three  nights"  will  then  be 
reckoned  thus  : — 

ist;  day  :  From  sunset  on  Thursday  to  sunset  on  Friday. 
2nd  day  :  From  sunset  on  Friday  to  sunset  on  Saturday. 
3rd  day  :  From  sunset  on  Saturday  to  Sunday  morning. 



The  Passover  Night,  f 

We  must  assume  that  the  paschal  lamb  has  been 
killed  in  the  Temple  sometime  in  the  afternoon  of  Nisan 
i4th.  On  the  evening  of  the  same  day  (i.e.,  the  beginning 
of  Nisan  i5th),  the  Israelites,  forming  themselves  into 
companies  of  not  Jess  than  ten  nor  more  than  twenty, 
would  eat  the  Passover  at  home.  They  would  sit  at 
table  in  the  same  jovial  spirit  that  Christians  in  England 
sit  at  the  Christmas  table.  The  Jew  regards  the  Pass 
over  as  a  joyous,  religious  feast.  So,  while  at  table,  he 
must  go  through  a  special  Service.  This  service  is 
called  "  Haggadah,"  which  means  "  showing  forth,"  or 
"  relating  "  the  story  of  deliverance  from  Egypt.  It  is 
derived  from  the  Hebrew  word  used  in  Ex.  xiii.  8,  "  And 
thoushalt  show  [R.V."tell  "]  thy  son  in  that  day " 

t  The  Synoptists  (i.e.  Matthew,  Mark  and  Luke)  and  St.  John 
agree  that  our  Lord  was  crucified  on  Friday,  but  it  is  not  quite  clear 
whether  that  Friday  was  the  i4th  or  i5th  of  Nisan.  Reading  St. 
John  alone,  one  gets  the  impression  that  it  was  the  I4th,  whereas 
the  Synoptists  seem  to  suggest  that  it  was  the  i5th  of  Nisan.  It  is 
quite  clear  that  both  the  Synoptists  and  St.  John  are  describing  the 
selfsame  scene.  Why  then  this  conflicting  impression  ?  Several  replies 
have  been  offered  by  different  scholars.  The  solution  that  satisfies 


St.  Paul  applies  the  very  same  word  to  express  one 
aspect  of  the  Lord's  Supper  !  "  For  as  often  as  ye  eat 
this  bread,  and  drink  the  cup,  ye  proclaim  (A.V.  "  do  shoiv  ") 
the  Lord's  death  till  He  come  "  (i  Cor.  xi.,  26).  The 
Holy  Communion  is  not  only  a  means  of  "  the  spiritual 
unity  of  all  believers  in  Christ"  (i  Cor  x.,  17),  but  it  is 
also  a  "  proclamation  "  to  ourselves  and  to  the  world  at 
large  of  the  redemption  wrought  by  the  Lord's  death  till 
He  come.  In  other  words,  it  has  a  missionary  and 
evidential  aspect  as  well. 

The  Large  Upper  Room  Furnished  and   Ready 

(Mk.  xiv.,  15). — "On  the  first  day  of  unleavened 
bread"  *  (Mk.  xii.,  12),  the  Lord  sent  Peter  and  John 
(Luke  xxii.,  8),  to  Jerusalem,  with  orders  that  they 
should  follow  "  a  man  I  bearing  a  pitcher  of  water,  and 
prepare  the  Passover  in  the  "large  upper  room  furnished 

the  present  writer  is  as  follows  : —  St.  John  and  the  Synoptists 
regard  the  same  day  differently,  simply  because  the  Jewish  calendar 
had  not  yet  been  fixed.  Jews  depended  upon  the  appearance  of  the 
new  moon  to  determine  the  first  day  of  the  month.  Owing  to  the 
weather,  the  new  moon  would  be  seen  in  some  parts  of  the  country, 
but  remain  unobserved  in  others.  From  this  would  arise  a  difference 
in  computation  ;  the  same  day  would  be  regarded  by  one  man  as 
the  i4th,  by  another  man  as  the  i5th  day  of  the  month.  We 
actually  read  in  the  Talmud  of  a  certain  Rabbi  Joshua  calling  into 
question  the  accuracy  of  R.  Gamaliel  II  (80-116  A.D.)  who  had 
fixed  a  certain  day  as  the  first  day  of  Tishri.  1  must  reserve  a  fuller 
discussion  of  this  question  for  a  larger  \voik  than  this  pamphlet. 

*  This  means  the  i4th  of  Nisan,  in  the  last  hours  of  which  the 
Feast  of  Unleavened  Bread  began. 

f  Generally  women  carry  the  pitcher  of  water. 


and  ready"  which  the  good  man  of  the  house  f  would 
show  them.  By  the  word  "furnished"  we  must  not 
think  that  the  room  looked  anything  like  the  drawing- 
rooms  in  England.  If  you  will  please  turn  to  the 
frontispiece  you  will  see  there  an  illustration  of  an 
Eastern  "  furnished  "  room.  There  are  no  chairs  there, 
none  of  those  pretty  things  with  which  you  fill  up  the 
centre  of  your  drawing-rooms.  There  are  soft  divans  or 
cushions,  placed  on  the  three  sides  of  the  room.  The 
guests  are  keeping  on  their  hats,  but  have  taken  off  their 
shoes  (comp.  Ex.  hi.,  5),  and  are  comfortably  squatted 
on  the  divans.  On  the  low  table  before  them  there  are 
no  forks,  knives,  or  spoons.  The  same  room  is  used 
as  dining-room,  drawing-room,  sitting-room,  study- 
room,  and  bed-room. 

Reclining  at  Table. — At  the  first  celebration,  the 
Passover  was  partaken  of  in  haste,  with  loins  girded, 
with  shoes  on  feet  and  staff  in  hand  (Ex.  xii.,  n) ;  but, 
at  the  time  we  are  describing,  they  had  discarded  the 
travellers'  garments  for  festive  robes,  and  had  adopted  the 
reclining  posture  at  table  "  as  free  men  do,  in  memorial 
of  their  freedom."  Because  it  is  the  manner  of  slaves 
to  eat  standing,  therefore  now  they  eat  sitting  and 
leaning,  in  order  to  show  that  they  have  been  delivered 
from  bondage  into  freedom."  "  No,  not  the  poorest  in 

t  See    "The   Interpreter"    of  April,   1907,   p.   318,    where    the 
"  good  man  of  the  house  "  is  identified  with  S*.  Mark. 


Israel  may  eat  till  he  has  sat  down,  leaning."  f  It  was 
not  necessary  that  they  should  recline  the  whole  time  they 
were  at  table,  but  only  while  partaking  of  the  bread  and 
the  wine.  So  we  read  that  at  the  Last  Supper,  "  one  of 
the  disciples,  whom  Jesus  loved  "  (i.e.  St.  John)  "  was 
reclining  on  Jesus' /«/>"  ("  kolpos  "  in  Greek).  It  was 
at  the  Paschal  Supper,  and  St.  John  had  adopted  the 
reclining  attitude. 

From  the  striking  and  vivid  description  of  the 
beloved  Apostle,  who  was  an  eye-witness,  we  can 
picture  to  ourselves  that  memorable  scene  in  that  upper 
room,  when  the  Lord  instituted  His  own  Supper.  In 
the  illustration  on  page  24,  you  will  see  there  is  a 
rough  sketch  of  how  our  Lord  and  the  Apostles  would 
be  seated.  In  the  centre  of  the  couch  on  the  top — the 
place  of  the  head  of  the  family — our  Lord  is  sitting  ;  on 
His  right  hand  is  St.  John  leaning  on  our  Lord's  lap. 
On  His  left  is  Judas  Iscariot.  St  Peter  is  sitting  on 
another  couch  next  to  St.  John. 

p.  201. 

f  For  these  quotations  I  am  indebted  to    Edersheim's   Temple 



Notes  on  the   Illustration   on   page  24. 

The  Lord  occupies  the  centre  of  the  middle  divan, 
for  it  is  the  place  of  the  head  of  the  family.  St.  John  is 
on  His  right  hand.  While  leaning  on  his  left  arm,  St. 
John's  head  came  to  the  "  breast  "  of  our  Lord.  This 
shows  that  he  must  have  been  sitting  on  the  right  of  our 
Lord,  on  the  seat  of  honour,  and  incidentally  shows  that 
he  was  "  the  apostle  whom  Jesus  loved."  Judas  is  on 
the  left  of  our  Lord.  This  we  gather  from  the  fact  that 
when  our  Lord  had  foretold  the  treachery  of  one  of  His 
disciples,  Judas  answered  and  said  "  Is  it  I,  Rabbi  ?  He 
saith  unto  him,  thou  hast  said"  Evidently  the  other 
apostles  did  not  hear  this  reply  of  Christ  to  Judas. 
Had  they  heard  it,  they  would  not  have  allowed  him  to 
leave  the  house.  So  we  conclude  that  Judas  was  allotted  a 
seat  close  to  our  Lord.  As  St.  John  was  on  the  right 
hand,  Judas  must  have  been  on  the  left.  This  is 
confirmed  by  John  xiii.,  26. 

St.  Peter  must  have  been  sitting  near  enough  to 
St.  John  to  be  able  to  speak  to  him,  and  yet  at  some 
distance  so  as  to  require  beckoning.  "  Simon  Peter  there 
fore  beckoneth  to  him  (St.  John),  and  saith  unto  him,  tell 
us,  who  it  is  of  whom  He  speaketh"  (John  xiii.,  25).  St. 
John,  on  Peter's  beckoning,  raises  himself  from  the  lap 
(Greek  '  kolpos ')  of  Jesus,  and  so  can  speak  to  him  without 
being  overheard.  Then  "  he  leaning  back  on  to  Jesus' 
breast  "  (Greek,  '  stethos  '),  i.e.,  nearer  to  His  ear,  asks  in 
a  whisper,  "Lord,  who  is  it  ?  " — (See  Meyer). 



Programme  of  the  Passover-eve  Service. 

We  take  it  for  granted  that  the  Passover  as  observed 
by  the  Eastern  Jews  to-day,  follows  substantially  the 
programme  laid  down  in  the  Talmud. 

The  Service  begins  at  sunset  and  lasts  about  three 
hours.  The  Rabbinic  rubric  says,  "  The  Passover  is 
not  eaten  but  during  the  night,  nor  yet  later  than  the 
middle  of  the  night"  (Zebbach  v.,  2).  Every  Jew  on 
this  night  must  drink  four  cups  of  wine,  "  though  he  were 
to  receive  the  money  for  it  from  the  poor  box," 
(Pesachim  x.,  i).  It  is  asserted  by  some  Rabbis  that  the 
four  cups  are  the  joyful  reminders  of  the  four  Hebrew 
words  used  by  God  when  He  promised  to  bring  the 
Israelites  out  of  Egypt.  The  four  words  are  found  in 
Exodus  vi.,  6-7,  and  are  as  follow: — "/  will  bring  yon 
out"  "  /  will  rid  you"  "  /  will  redeem  you,"  "  I  will  take  you 
to  Me"  The  cups  are  not  drunk  at  once,  but  at  intervals 
during  three  hours  ;  the  first  as  they  sit  at  table,  the 


second  before  the  meal,  the  third  after  the  meal ;  the 
fourth  at  the  conclusion  of  the  whole  service.  Here  we 
describe  the  service  in  the  order  observed  by  present  day 

i. — The  First  Cup  of  Wine. — Everyone  at  table  is 
provided  with  a  separate  cup.  These  cups  are  all  filled  with 
red  wine  diluted  with  water.  The  head  of  the  family 
takes  the  cup,  pronounces  the  usual  Sabbath  (our 
Saturday)  blessing'--  on  it,  and  adds  the  following  :— 
"  Blessed  art  Thou  O  Lord,  our  God,  King  of  the 
universe,  Who  hast  kept  its  alive,  and  sustained  us,  and 
permitted  us  to  reach  this  season."  Then  all  drink  their 
cups  at  the  same  time.  Sometimes,  in  the  East,  the 
celebrant  alone  fills  his  cup,  blesses  it,  drinks  of  it,  and 
passes  it  round.  Then  each  one  would  pour  a  little  into 
his  own  cup  and  drink.  This  seems  to  have  been  the  usage 
followed  by  our  Lord.  The  cup  mentioned  in  Luke 
xxn.  17,  refers  to  this  first  cup.  The  cup  with  which 
He  instituted  His  own  supper  was  the  third  cup,  which 
will  be  explained  in  its  order. 

2. — The  First  Washing  of  Hands. — The  celebrant 
alone  washes  his  hands,  but  not  ceremonially.  The 
Rabbis  recognize  various  modes  of  washing  the  hands. 
To  wash  the  hands  ceremonially  a  man  must  lift  up  a 
ewer  with  the  left  hand  and  pour  down  water  from  it 

*   "  Blessed  art  Thou  O  Lord,  our  God,   King  of  the  universe, 
Who  didst  create  the  fruit  of  the  vine." 


first  upon  the  right  and  then  upon  his  left  hand.  He 
must  repeat  this  three  times,  forming  his  hand  into  a 
closed  fist  so  that  the  water  should  go  all  over  it.  This 
is  mentioned  in  Mark  vii.,  3,  where  we  read  that  "  The 
Pharisees  and  all  the  Jews  except  they  wash  their  hands 
diligently  ("  with  the  fist,"  R.V.,  margin ;  "  oft  "  A.V.),  they 
eat  not."  This  practice  originated  with  the  Scribes  in  the 

Washing  before  or  after  a  Meal. 

days  of  our  Lord.  It  is  recorded  in  the  Talmud 
(Eduy.  p.  6),  that  a  certain  Rabbi  Eliezer  ben  Chanokh 
who  violated  this  ordinance  was  actually  buried  in 
excommunication.  Now  we  can  understand  the  zeal 
of  the  Scribes  (Mk.  vii.,  i)  in  finding  fault  with  the  disciples 
of  our  Lord  for  having  violated  this  decree  of  theirs,  and 


that  in  their  very  presence.  We  need  not  assume  that 
the  disciples  did  not  wash  their  hands  at  all.  They  did 
not  wash  their  hands  ceremonially,  i.e.,  u  with  the  fist,"  or 
up  to  the  wrist. 

3. — Vegetables. — A  piece  of  parsley  or  lettuce  is 
dipped  into  salt  water  and  eaten  as  appetizer. 

4. — The  Breaking  of  Bread,— The  bread  consumed 
during  the  Feast  is  a  dry,  thin  unleavened  cake,  which 
can  be  easily  broken.  On  Sabbath  (our  Saturday)  there 
are  two  loaves  of  bread  on  the  table  in  memory  of  the 
double  measure  of  manna  that  was  gathered  on  Friday 
(Shab.  nyb)  ;  but  on  Passover  night  there  are  three. 

The  head  of  the  family  breaks  the  middle  loaf  into 
two  parts,  and  lays  aside  the  larger  part  to  be  eaten  at 
the  end  of  the  supper  as  afikuman,  or  dessert.  The 
breaking  reminds  the  Israelite  of  the  "  bread  of  affliction, " 
for  an  afflicted  poor  man,  it  is  argued,  would  not  be 
likely  to  have  a  whole  loaf,  but  only  broken  pieces.  So  he 
takes  up  the  broken  bread  and  says  :  "  This  is  the  bread  of 
affliction  which  our  forefathers  ate  in  the  land  oj  Egypt,  who 
soever  is  hungry,  let  him  come  and  eat."  What  does  he 
mean  by  these  words  ?  Does  he  mean  that  the  broken 
bread  which  he  is  holding  in  his  hand  is  miraculously 
turned  into  the  same  bread  which  his  ancestors  centuries 
ago  consumed  in  Egypt  ?  No,  he  does  not  mean  anything 
of  the  kind  ;  he  simply  means  "  we  do  this  in  remembranc 


of  the  kind  of  bread  which  our  ancestors  ate  in  Egypt." 
The  breaking  of  bread  implies  two  things  :  (i)  -A  re- 
reminder  of  "  the  bread  of  affliction  "  which  the  Israelites 
ate  in  the  Egyptian  bondage.  (ii)  A  thanksgiving  for 
redemption  from  that  bondage.  Our  Lord  gave  a  new 
significance  to  both  aspects  of  this  breaking  of  bread. 
"  And  He  took  bread,  and  when  He  had  given  thanks, 
He  brake  it,  and  gave  to  them  saying,  this  is  My  body 
which  is  given  for  you  :  this  do  in  remembrance  of  Me," 
(Luke  xxii,  19).  In  other  words,  He  said  Up  to  this  time 
whenever  you  broke  the  bread,  it  reminded  you  of  the 
"  BREAD  OF  AFFLICTION  "  which  your  fathers  ate  in 
Egypt ;  but  henceforth  when  you  break  the  bread,  let  it 
remind  you  of  the  breaking  of  My  body  which  is  going  to 
take  place  for  you  to-morrow  on  the  cross.  Heretofore, 
whenever  you  broke  this  break,  you  THANKED  God  for  your 
redemption  from  the  Egyptian  bondage ;  henceforth, 
when  you  "  perform  this  action,"  thank  God  for  your 
redemption  from  a  greater  bondage,  the  bondage  of  sin; 
"  This  do,*  no  more  in  remembrance  of  Egypt,  but  "  in 
remembrance  of  Me." 

5.—"  Relating'  or  "  Proclaiming;"  the  Story  of 
the  Deliverance,  and  the  Drinking  of  the  Second 
Cup. — In  accordance  with  Exod.  xiii.,  8,  the  Jewish 
father  has  to  tell  his  son  the  importance  of  the  feast. 
So,  the  table  is  covered  at  this  junction  in  order  to  excite 
the  curiosity  of  the  children,  the  youngest  of  whom 

would  put  the  following  question  to  the  father,  "  Why 
is  this  night  distinguished  from  all  other  nights  ? " 
The  father  then  relates  the  whole  national  history, 
dwelling  especially  on  the  story  of  the  deliverance  from 
Egypt.  This  is  followed  by  the  recital  of  the  first 
part  of  the  Hallel  (Pss.  cxiii.,  cxiv). 

The  farewell  discourses  of  our  Lord,  related  in 
John  xiv.-xvii.,  take  the  place  of  this  "relating."  They 
must,  however,  have  been  delivered  somewhat  later  on, 
after  the  departure  of  Judas.  In  like  manner,  the  new 
significance  of  the  "  breaking  of  bread  "  must  have  been 
delayed  until  this  uncongenial  element  had  been 

The  Second  Cup  (called  the  "  cup  of  Haggadah  or 
Proclaiming)  is  drunk.  Here  ends  the  first  part  of  the 

6. — Second  Washing  of  Hands. — All  wash  their 
hands  before  meals  as  it  is  usual  in  the  East.  It  was 
probably  at  this  time  that  our  Lord  washed  the  feet  of 
the  disciples. 

7. — Grace  before  Meal  is  said  and  small  pieces 
of  the  Passover  cake  are  distributed  and  eaten. 

8.— The  "  Bitter  Herb,"  and  the  "  Sop  "  (called 
Charoseth).  Some  endive  or  horseradish,  or  some  other 
bitter  herb  is  partaken  of  in  memory  of  the  bitterness 
and  persecution  which  the  Israelites  endured  in  Egypt. 
The  "  bitter  herb "  is  placed  between  pieces  of  the 
broken  cake  and  "  dipped  "  into*the_.  "  charoseth  "  and 


(a). — The  Charoseth  is  composed  of  figs,  nuts, 
dates,  pomegranates,  apples,  almonds,  cinnamon,  and 
ginger.  When  all  these  are  mixed  up,  a  sauce  of  clayish 
appearance  is  the  result.  It  is  to  remind  the  guests 
of  the  clay  with  which  their  ancestors  had  to  make  the 
bricks  in  Egypt.  The  crushed  cinnamon  bark  or  tube 
is  to  represent  the  straw  which  they  had  to  mix  with  the 
clay  in  Egypt.  The  "  sop "  which  our  Lord  gave  to 
Judas  most  probably  was  the  "  Charoseth." 

(b).  The  Significance  of  the  "  Sop." — In  answer 
to  St.  John's  enquiry  as  to  who  was  to  be  the  betrayer 
the  Lord  answered  "  He  it  is,  for  whom  /  [emphatic] 
shall  dip  the  sop,*  and  give  it  him.  So  when  He  had 
dipped  the  sop,  He  taketh  and  giveth  it  to  Judas," 
(John  xiii.,  26).  The  dish  containing  '  charoseth  '  goes 
round,  and  each  guest  dips  his  own  morsel  into  it  and 
eats  ;  but  on  this  night,  it  was  Christ  who  dipped 
the  morsel  and  gave  it  to  Judas.  What  did  He  mean 
by  it  ?  To  an  Eastern  it  would  have  a  most  solemn 
significance,  for  eating  bread  with  a  man  means  entering 
into  the  most  sacred  and  indissoluble  bond  of  friendship 
with  him.  The  Psalmist  could  not  have  depicted  a 
more  monstrous  treachery  than  the  one  which  he  depicts 
in  the  words  of  Psalm  xli.,  9: — "Yea  mine  own 

*  Greek  "  psomion  "  "a  little  piece  broken  oft,"  probably 
refers  to  the  broken  piece  of  the  Passover  cake  \\hich,  with  bitter 
herb,  is  "  dipped  "  into  the  Charoseth. 


familiar  friend,  in  whom  I  trusted,  which  did  eat  of  my 
bread,  hath  lifted  up  his  heel  against  me."  When  our 
Lord  gave  the  sop  to  Judas,  He  meant  this  : — I  know 
you  are  going  to  betray  me,  but  even  now  my  heart 
yearns  for  your  salvation  ;  I  give  you  another  opportunity 
to  repent ;  I  enter  into  the  covenant  of  bread  with  you  ; 
this  sop  is  another  mark  of  My  good-will  towards  you. 
We  read  in  verse  30  that  Judas,  "  having  received  f  the 
sop,  went  out  straightway,  and  it  was  night."  So,  the 
Lord  is  left  undisturbed  to  institute  His  own  Supper 
for  which  He  has  been  longing  (Lk.  xxii.,  15).  He 
turns  "  the  Lord's  Passover"  into  "the  Lord's  Supper." 

9. — The  Evening  Meal. — The  real  meal  now 
begins.  Every  one  is  by  duty  bound  to  have  a  good 
hearty  supper.  Then  they  wash  their  hands  for  a  third 

10. — The  Afikuman.— After  the  meal,  the  "  Afiku- 
man "  i.e.  the  part  of  the  cake  which  was  laid 
aside  (p.  29),  is  brought  out  and  eaten.  Probably  it 
was  at  this  junction  that  our  Lord  instituted^  the  Lord's 
Supper.  He  had  intentionally  delayed  it  until  the 
departure  of  Judas. 

f  Literally,"  huving  taken, "which  implies  that  Judas  understood 
what  Christ  meant  when  He  offered  him  the  sop.  Judas  "  took  " 
from  His  hand,  as  if  to  say,  "  yes,  I  take  it  from  Thy  hand  and 
enter  into  the  covenant  of  bread  with  Thee."  Yet,  in  spite  of  this, 
he  went  and  betrayed  his  Lord,  and  thus  showed  that  he  must 
have  been  under  the  influence  of  Satan,  otherwise,  he  would  have 
never  betrayed  his  Lord  after  this  solemn  covenant  (see  Jn.  xiii.,  27). 


ii. — The  Cup  of  Blessing1. — This  is  the  third  cup 
and  is  called  "  the  cup  of  blessing,"  because  the  blessing 
or  "  the  grace  after  meal"  is  pronounced  upon  it.  It 
was  certainly  this  cup  which  our  Lord  blessed,  saying 
"  this  cup  is  the  new  covenant  in  my  blood,  even  that 
which  is  poured  out  for  you"  (Luke  xxii.,  20).  This 
cup  comes  "  after  supper,"  i.e.  after  the  evening  meal 
just  as  we  read  in  Luke  xxii.,  20.  "  The  cup  of  blessing  " 
is  also  the  name  which  St.  Paul  gives  to  the  cup  in  the 
Holy  Communion  (i  Cor.  x.,  16),  thus  connecting  the 
Christian  Sacramental  cup  with  the  third  cup  of  the 
Jewish  Passover  Service. 

12. — The  Mallei. — The  cup  is  filled  a  fourth  time. 
The  second  part  of  the  Hallel  consisting  of  Psalms  cxv.  to 
cxviii.,  and  the  "  Great  Hallel  "  (Ps.  cxxxvi)  is  recited. 
The  cup  is  then  blessed  and  drunk.  This  is  the  concluding 
cup.  At  the  Last  Supper,  St.  Matthew  tells  us,  "  when 
they  had  sung  a  hymn,  they  went  out"  (xxvi.,  30).  The 
"  hymn  "  probably  was  the  Hallel  Psalms. 

13. — Conclusion. — A  prayer  is  offered  that  God 
may  accept  the  Service  just  rendered.  Modern  Jews 
conclude  the  Passover  Service  by  singing  several  hymns 
which,  however,  do  not  go  back  to  the  days  of  our  Lord. 

The  Arm. — Since  the  destruction  of  the  Temple 
(70,  A.D.),  the  Jews  have  no  sacrifices.  They  place, 
however,  a  half-burnt  shank-bone  or  "  arm  "  of  a  lamb 
on  their  table  as  a  symbol  of  the  paschal  lamb.  The 


reason  for  the  choice  of  this   particular  bone   is  to    be 
found  in  Exodus  vi.,  6  ("  stretched  out  arm  "). 

The  Egg. — Since  the  destruction  of  the  Temple 
the  Jews  have  been  in  the  habit  of  placing  an  egg  on 
their  Passover  tables,  according  to  the  Western  Jews,  as 
a  reminder  of  the  "  Chagiga "  or  additional  festive 
offering.  The  Eastern  Jews,  however,  regard  the  egg 
as  a  symbol  of  mourning."-  It  is  to  remind  them  that 
although  they  are  rejoicing  they  must  not  forget  that  as 
a  nation  they  are  really  in  mourning,  because  their  Temple 
is  destroyed  and  their  Holy  City  is  trodden  down  by  the 

Elijah's  Chair.— The  Jews  believe  that  when  the 
Messiah  comes,  he  will  manifest  Himself  to  his  nation 
during  the  Feast  of  Passover.  He  will  be,  however, 
preceded  by  Elijah,  his  forerunner.  So  the  modern 
Jews  place  a  vacant  chair  at  the  table  with  a  glass  of 
wine  before  it,  and  actually  go  and  fling  their  doors  open 
to  let  Elijah  come  in  and  bring  them  the  glad  tidings 
that  the  Messiah  has  come. 

This  is  so  pathetic.  We,  Christians,  kno-w  that 
their  Messiah  has  come,  that  the  Lord  Jesus  is  their 
Messiah.  Shall  we  not  go  and  in  a  loving  Christian 
way  tell  them  of  Him  who  is 

"  A  light  to  lighten  the  Gentiles, 
And  the  glory  of  thy  people  Israel  "  ? 

*  .In  the  East,  mourning  is  accompanied  by  refusal  to  partake 
of  meals  (n  Sam.  xii.,  16-17).  Friends  and  neighbours  bring  the 
mourners  some  nourishment  and  try  to  persuade  them  to  eat  it 
(n  Sam.  iii.,  35;  Jer.  xvi.,  7  :  Hos.  ix.,  4).  The  nourishment 
which  they  can  most  conveniently  bring  is  an  egg.  Hence  the  egg 
has  come  to  be  regarded  as  mourners'  food. 




* ^fw%^SKf  ^8ror4^ogA^<n«7&  ^>« 

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